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Final ppt. Embed Size px. Start on. One of the benefits of such relationships is that they enable algae to broaden the horizons of their habitats.
As a general rule, algae are capable of photosynthesis and produce their own nourishment by using light energy from the sun and carbon dioxide in order to generate carbohydrates and oxygen.
In other words, most algae are autotrophs or more specifically, photoautotrophs reflecting their use of light energy to generate nutrients.
However, there exist certain algal species that need to obtain their nutrition solely from outside sources; that is, they are heterotrophic.
Such species apply a variety of heterotrophic strategies to acquire nutrients from organic materials carbon containing compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Osmotrophy is the absorption of dissolved substances, and phagotrophy involves engulfing bacteria or other such prey. Other algae, known as auxotrophs, need to only acquire essential vitamins such as the B 12 complex or fatty acids according to "Algae".
According to the authors of "Algae," it is widely accepted that the nutritional strategies of algae exist on a spectrum combining photoautotrophy and heterotrophy.
This ability is known as mixotrophy. Algae are capable of reproducing through asexual or vegetative methods and via sexual reproduction. According to the authors of "Algae," asexual reproduction involves the production of a motile spore, while vegetative methods include simple cell division mitosis to produce identical offspring and the fragmentation of a colony.
Sexual reproduction involves the union of gametes produced individually in each parent through meiosis. These are also referred to as blue-green algae.
Though they are capable of conducting oxygen-producing photosynthesis and live in many of the same environments as eukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria are gram-negative bacteria , and therefore are prokaryotes.
They are also capable of independently conducting nitrogen fixation, the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen to usable forms of the element such as ammonia.
The prefix "cyano" means blue. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column phytoplankton provide the food base for most marine food chains.
In very high densities algal blooms , these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.
Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in various aquatic systems. Due to this, the species composition of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical pollutants.
On the basis of their habitat, algae can be categorized as: aquatic planktonic , benthic , marine , freshwater , lentic , lotic ,  terrestrial , aerial subaerial ,  lithophytic , halophytic or euryhaline , psammon , thermophilic , cryophilic , epibiont epiphytic , epizoic , endosymbiont endophytic , endozoic , parasitic , calcifilic or lichenic phycobiont.
Agar , a gelatinous substance derived from red algae, has a number of commercial uses. Alginic acid, or alginate, is extracted from brown algae.
Its uses range from gelling agents in food, to medical dressings. Alginic acid also has been used in the field of biotechnology as a biocompatible medium for cell encapsulation and cell immobilization.
Molecular cuisine is also a user of the substance for its gelling properties, by which it becomes a delivery vehicle for flavours.
Between , and , wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in New Mexico for alginate extraction and abalone feed.
To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from local policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels.
Here, algae-based fuels hold great promise,   directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass.
The break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales : .
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers , soil conditioners , and livestock feed. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places.
Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner. Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia.
They provide many vitamins including: A, B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , niacin , and C , and are rich in iodine , potassium , iron, magnesium , and calcium.
Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy , a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species such as nori and aonori ;  Ireland, dulse ; Chile , cochayuyo.
Sea lettuce and badderlocks are salad ingredients in Scotland , Ireland, Greenland , and Iceland. Algae is being considered a potential solution for world hunger problem.
The oils from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids, but the original source is algae microalgae in particular , which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the food chain.
Scientists developed the ATS, which consists of shallow, foot raceways of nylon netting where algae colonies can form, and studied its efficacy for three years.
They found that algae can readily be used to reduce the nutrient runoff from agricultural fields and increase the quality of water flowing into rivers, streams, and oceans.
Researchers collected and dried the nutrient-rich algae from the ATS and studied its potential as an organic fertilizer.
They found that cucumber and corn seedlings grew just as well using ATS organic fertilizer as they did with commercial fertilizers. Various polymers can be created from algae, which can be especially useful in the creation of bioplastics.
These include hybrid plastics, cellulose based plastics, poly-lactic acid, and bio-polyethylene. The alga Stichococcus bacillaris has been seen to colonize silicone resins used at archaeological sites; biodegrading the synthetic substance.
The natural pigments carotenoids and chlorophylls produced by algae can be used as alternatives to chemical dyes and coloring agents.
Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus , is used as a stabilizer in milk products. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For places called Alga, see Alga disambiguation. For other uses, see Algae disambiguation. Diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.
An informal term for a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Temporal range: Mesoproterozoic—present .
Further information: wikispecies:Algae. Main article: Lichen. Main articles: Coral , Coral reef , and Symbiodinium.
Main article: Sea sponge. Further information: Conceptacle. Further information: Seaweed fertiliser. See also: Edible seaweed and Algae powder.
Main articles: Carrageenan and Chondrus crispus. Archived from the original on 7 March Cambridge University Press.
Introduction to Botany. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. The Concise Dictionary of Botany. Oxford University Press. American Journal of Botany.
Archived from the original on 27 February Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 25 August Farblose Algen.
Ein beitrag zur Evolutionsforschung. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. New Phytologist.
Bibcode : PNAS.. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Retrieved 31 December Macmillan Company. Vashishta Revised by A. Sinha and V.
Singh Botany for degree students algae. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company. Plant Physiology. Archived PDF from the original on 7 February Biology 8 ed.
November Trends in Genetics. December Mitchell gives a lesson in algae Test Your Knowledge! Learn more! Algae Article Media Additional Info.
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External Websites.Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytesrhodophyteschrysophytesxanthophytesbacillariophytes London Nfl 2021, phaeophytespyrrhophytes cryptophytes and dinophyteseuglenophytesand chlorophytes. These are -phyta for division, -phyceae for class, -phycideae for Casino Alexanderplatz, -ales for order, Alge Alge Alge for suborder, -aceae for family, -oidease for subfamily, a Greek-based name for genus, and Pokerblatt übersicht Latin-based name for species. Many cyanobacteria have the blue pigment phycocyanin, a light-harvesting pigment it absorbs red wavelengths of light. Cancel Save. The Diversity and Evolution of Bvb Anstoß. According to the authors of "Algae," asexual reproduction involves the production of a motile spore, while vegetative methods include simple cell division mitosis to produce identical offspring and the fragmentation of a colony. University of Western Australia Press. Second, many algae are unicellular, according to a article published in Spiele Software journal Current Biology. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche ZoologieBd. Are you sure you want to Yes No.